Transformed into giant snakes, the two gods attacked and dismembered the female reptilian mo… , Many of the temples now associated with Tezcatlipoca are built facing East-West, as Olivier quotes Felipe Solis: "the sacred building of the war god [Tezcatlipoca] was in direct relation with the movement of the sun, in the same manner of the Great Temple was, their façades being towards the West". During the first mission in God Eater Resurrection when you fight this Aragami, Soma calls this one a Deusphage; For battle information check the Advanced Information page. This explains his association with the first day of the thirteen-day Aztec calendar which is represented by a jaguar. The four Tezcatlipocas were the sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, lady and lord of the duality, and were the creators of all the other gods, as well as the world and all humanity. Tezcatlipoca (Tez-ca-tlee-POH-ka), whose name means “Smoking Mirror”, was the Aztec god of night and sorcery, as well as the patron deity of Aztec kings and young warriors. In Aztec mythology he was the brother of Quetzalcoatl, Huizilopochtli and Xipe Totec. During the feast where he was worshipped as the deity he personified, he climbed the stairs to the top of the temple on his own where the priests seized him, a time in which he proceeded to symbolically crush "one by one the clay flutes on which he had played in his brief moment of glory," and then was sacrificed, his body being eaten later. Depending on the site half of his leg, the full length of his arms, the majority of his legs, or any combination thereof can be depicted.  More on the exact rituals, such as the Feast of Toxcatl will be mentioned later. Tezcatlipoca’s cult was brought to central Mexico by the Toltecs, Nahua-speaking warriors from the … Tezcatlipoca's nagual, his animal counterpart, was the jaguar and his jaguar aspect was the deity Tepeyollotl ("Mountainheart"). xiii, 403 pages : 26 cm A study of Tezcatlipoca, one of the greatest but least understood Mesoamerican pantheon. His name in the Nahuatl language is often translated as "Smoking Mirror" and alludes to his connection to obsidian, the material from which mirrors were made in Mesoamerica and which were used for shamanic rituals and prophecy. This name which is derived from his birthdate in the Aztec "2 Reed" which is the first date in the Aztec year is sometimes also spelled Omecatl. Tezcatlipoca was an important god in the Aztec religion.  Tezcatlipoca overthrew Quetzalcoatl, forcing him to send a great wind that devastated the world, and the people who survived were turned into monkeys. He was represented by the Ursa Major (Great Bear) constellation , which the Aztec saw as a jaguar . The two later cooperated, however, to create the 5th Sun. He is the 9th of the 13 Lords of the Day and is often associated with the rain god Tláloc. Real Name: Tezcatlipoca. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Tezcatlipoca in the form of a jaguar, carved on a granite ball player's yoke.  The new king would claim his spiritual nakedness symbolically through words and physical vulnerability, praising Tezcatlipoca with lines such as: O master, O our lord, O lord of the near, of the nigh, O night, O wind...Poor am I. In the complex Mesoamerican creation myths Tezcatlipoca ruled the first world of the Sun but was then overthrown by Quetzalcóatl. Under his influence the practice of human sacrifice was introduced into central Mexico. Tezcatlipoca (Tez-ca-tlee-POH-ka), whose name means “Smoking Mirror”, was the Aztec god of night and sorcery, as well as the patron deity of Aztec kings and young warriors. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Tezcatlipoca, The British Museum - Mosaic mask of Tezcatlipoca, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Tezcatlipoca, Tezcatlipoca - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Tezcatlipoca - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). His name is translated as ‘smoking mirror’ in the Nahuatl language of the Aztec and he is often associated with several different concepts, including: the night sky, night winds, hurricanes, the north, jaguars, obsidian, and war. But she was crushed by Tezcatlipoca's words who accused her of just pretending to be kind. For an in depth description and interpretation of the Toxcatl festival see Olivier (2003) Chapter 6. • Guilhem Olivier, Mockeries and Metamorphoses of an Aztec god, Tezcatlipoca, "Lord of the Smoking Mirror", 2003, University Press of Colorado  They would also cover the sick and newly appointed king in a similar manner with a black ointment to encourage an association with the god. Tezcatlipoca was one of the most important gods of the Aztecs of central Mexico. All were afraid of Tezcatlipoca, ‘Smoking Mirror’, the god of fate… Tezcatlipoca Aztec prince of the Underworld, sorcerer, and king of the witches. Tezcatlipoca is a character in Onyx Equinox.Finding humanity to have grown violent and irreverent, he seeks to destroy and remake it by the equinox, but he went ahead with Quetzalcoatl's bet to see if a human would close the gates of the underworld. For a summary of Tezcatlipoca's epithets and their significance see Olivier (2003) Chapter 1. "He had been a warrior who was captured, and he ended his life as a warrior. " He would then be wed to four young women, also chosen in advance and isolated for a full year and treated as goddesses. Tezcatlipoca (/ˌtɛzkætliˈpoʊkə/; Classical Nahuatl: Tezcatlipōca Nahuatl pronunciation: [teskatɬiˈpoːka] (listen)) was a central deity in Aztec religion, and his main festival was the Toxcatl ceremony celebrated in the month of May. Tezcatlipoca was generally represented with a stripe of black paint across his face and an obsidian mirror in place of one of his feet. Before their act there was only the sea and the crocodilian earthmonster called Cipactli. This individual was called the ixiptla or "deity impersonator" and was chosen to ceremonially represent the god to the Aztec people. Called Yoalli Ehécatl (“Night Wind”), Yaotl (“Warrior”), and Telpochtli (“Young Man”), he was said to appear at crossroads at night to challenge warriors. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. POW! Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. His cult was associated with royalty, and was the subject of the most lengthy and reverent prayers in the rites of kingship, as well as being mentioned frequently in coronation speeches. The jaguar was Tezcatlipoca’s nagual , or animal disguise. At the top he was sacrificed by the removal of his heart. Tezcatlipoca, (Miroir Fumant), était un dieu très important du panthéon méso-américain. As with many Aztec gods, he was associated with several aspects of Aztec religion, the sky, and the earth, winds and the north, … Numerous myths relate how Tezcatlipoca expelled the priest-king Quetzalcóatl, the Feathered Serpent, from the latter’s centre at Tula. By Aztec times (14th–16th century ad), Tezcatlipoca’s manifold attributes and functions had brought him to the summit of the divine hierarchy, where he ruled together with Huitzilopochtli, Tlaloc, and Quetzalcóatl. The priests of Tezcatlipoca often wore the ornaments of the god and wore specific garments for different rituals. The name was used because of the shiny black mirrors often used by Aztec priests. Beyond it stood a wide, long chamber the size of a great hall...". As with many Aztec gods, he was associated with several aspects of Aztec religion, the sky, and the earth, winds and the north, kingship, divination, and war. Sometimes he was shown as a partner in creation, but more often he was shown as a … Tezcatlipoca was also honoured during the ceremony of the 9th month, when the Miccailhuitontli "Little Feast of the Dead" was celebrated to honour the dead, as well as during the Panquetzaliztli "Raising of Banners" ceremony in the 15th month. Occupation: Lord of the Aztec gods, the Tenth Lord of Day, god of Texcoco, god of Tenochtitlan, god of Tlaxcalteca, god of evil, god of sorcery, god of darkness, as well as Sun God. Tezcatlipoca (Tez-ca-tlee-POH-ka), whose name means “Smoking Mirror”, was the Aztec god of night and sorcery, as well as the patron deity of Aztec kings and young warriors. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Most commonly he is shown with horizontal face bands, wearing a heron feather headdress, a loincloth, and knotted sandals with an armband, and tinker bells either around his neck or ankles. Analyzing the sources and problems related to Tezcatlipoca's protean powers and shifting meanings, the author guides readers through the symbolic names of this great god, from his representation on skins and stones to his … In it he saw everything; invisible and omnipresent, he knew all the deeds and thoughts of humans. In the Aztec religion, Tezcatlipoca was an important god. Apart from being a creator deity, he also ruled over the modern age. " Tezcatlipoca appears on the first page of the Codex Borgia carrying the 20 day signs of the calendar; in the Codex Cospi he is shown as a spirit of darkness, as well as in the Codex Laud and the Dresden Codex. It is possible that he is either the same god that the Olmec and Maya reference with their "jaguar deity" or that Tezcatlipoca is a latter, more expanded version of the foundations the Olmec and Maya set, as the Aztecs often took inspiration from earlier cultures. Tezcatlipoca is the God of the Apocalypse, the most powerful entity in the Accelerated World, created specifically for the purpose of ending the world.1 1 Background 2 Appearance 3 Plot Outline 3.1 White Legion Arc 3.1.1 The Sword Sage of the Blue Flower 3.1.2 The God of Demise 4 Characteristics 5 Abilities 6 Trivia 7 References When the Accelerated World was first … Tezcatlipoca is a fictional character appearing in the independent comic book, El Muerto: The Aztec Zombie, created by Javier Hernandez and published under his privately owned imprint, Los Comex.The character, based on the god of the same name from Aztec mythology, made his first appearance in "Daze of the Dead: The Numero Uno Edition" in 1998.  During the last 20 days before being sacrificed, the ixiptla had their appearance transformed back to that of a warrior. Each one can be used individually! As with many Aztec gods, he was associated with several aspects of Aztec religion, the sky, and the earth, winds and the north, kingship, divination, and war. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Women were sometimes sacrificed as ixiptla to honor female deities. She cried for many years and the world was destroyed by the resulting floods. , He had many epithets which alluded to different aspects of his deity: Titlacauan /ˌtɪtləˈkaʊən/ ("We Are His Slaves"), Ipalnemoani ("He by Whom We Live"), Necoc Yaotl ("Enemy of Both Sides"), Tloque Nahuaque ("Lord of the Near and the Nigh") and Yohualli Èhecatl ("Night, Wind"), Ome Acatl ("Two Reed"), Ilhuicahua Tlalticpaque ("Possessor of the Sky and Earth"). For one year he lived in princely luxury, impersonating the god. In one of the Aztec accounts of creation, Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca joined forces to create the world. In one version of the Aztec creation account the myth of the Five Suns, the first creation, "The Sun of the Earth" was ruled by Tezcatlipoca but destroyed by Quetzalcoatl when he struck down Tezcatlipoca who then transformed into a jaguar. PUNCH! He is often shown with his right foot replaced with an obsidian mirror, bone, or a snake—an allusion to the creation myth in which he loses his foot battling with the Earth Monster. For a discussion of the many interpretations of the meaning of the name Tezcatlipoca see Olivier (2003) pp. Most were sung to praise the highest deities, including Tezcatlipoca, who was often addressed as the "Giver of Life." However, ixiptla were usually selected from among captive warriors, and the chosen individual was bathed and ceremoniously cleansed for the role that he was to undertake. There are few surviving representations of Tezcatlipoca into the present day.  The king would stand "naked, emphasizing his utter unworthiness," speaking as nothing but a vessel for the god's will. He was the god of material things and of night, and was also associated with winds, the earth, magic and war. "On his installation," the new king fasted and meditated, "which included prayers in honor of Tezcatlipoca, the patron deity of the royal house". Because of this, Tezcatlipoca is depicted with a missing foot. One of the four sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, he is associated with a wide range of concepts, including the night sky, the night winds, hurricanes, the north, the earth, obsidian, enmity, discord, rulership, divination, temptation, jaguars, sorcery, beauty, war, and strife.  The young man also was dressed in the likeness of the god and people on the streets would worship him as such when encountered. In Aztec mythology he was the brother of Tezcatlipoca , Huizilopochtli and Xipe Totec . Perhaps thou mistaketh me for another; perhaps thou seekest another in my stead, For kings, lords, priests, and citizens alike, the cyclical nature they observed every day and every year was portrayed not through science or philosophical debate, but utter reverence and respect for the spiritual beings they believed were the cause of these events. He was involved in the earth’s creation, commanded jaguars, oversaw sacrifices, and presided over the night sky. A protean wizard, Tezcatlipoca caused the death of many Toltecs by his black magic and induced the virtuous Quetzalcóatl to sin, drunkenness, and carnal love, thus putting an end to the Toltec golden age. Similarities exist with the patron deity of the K'iche' Maya as described in the Popol Vuh. The name Tezcatlipoca means “smoking mirror,” in reference to the obsidian mirror that he uses to foretell the future and spy on others. The post-Classic (after ad 900) Maya-Quiché people of Guatemala revered him as a lightning god under the name Hurakan (“One Foot”). It was gods like Tezcatlipoca that solidified this notion, representing both the silent wind, and thunderous war. He is said to have cooperated with Quetzalcoatl to create the world from the body of the monster Cipactli, losing his foot in the process.  Sometimes, slaves were purchased for the ceremony, and in this case, were bathed carefully to erase impurities.  Sacred hymns were also chanted at ceremonies to honor the gods. Each temple had a statue of the god for which copal incense was burned four times a day. The rivalry between Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca is also recounted in the legends of Tollan where Tezcatlipoca deceives Quetzalcoatl who was the ruler of the legendary city and forces him into exile. Il fait sonner la He is the god of the nocturnal sky, god of the ancestral memory, god of time and the Lord of the North, the embodiment of change through conflict. Updates? For the different aspects he embodied, Tezcatlipoca … Tezcatlipoca was a god of exceptional significance amongst the Aztec pantheon. He was sometimes known as owner of the sky and the Earth, and Lord of the Smoking Mirror. Identity/Class: Aztec god. Tezcatlipoca is the Aztec God of night and destruction.  However, the fact that many images are difficult to identify as one god or another does not mean that no generalizations can be made about Tezcatlipoca's appearance. He was the soul of the world, the creator of sky and earth, the lord of all things, both powerful and arbitrary.  There are also portrayals of his body also being black in certain places. But he had his wife taken away by Tezcatlipoca. Omissions? Other representations show Tezcatlipoca with his mirror on his chest. The Main temple of Tezcatlipoca in Tenochtitlan was located south of the Great Temple. Tezcatlipoca's Helm is the dragon-shaped helmet on top of its skull-like head. , The vowel transliterated here as [i] may in fact have been long or followed by a glottal stop which is sometimes written as an ⟨h⟩. ), with a black obsidian mirror replacing it (through which he observes the world), as well as many other inherent accessories. A central figure of the Popol Vuh was the god Tohil whose name means "obsidian" and who was associated with sacrifice. The god was particularly associated with the sacred site of Cholula, an important place of pilgrimage from 1200 CE and all round Aztec buildings were dedicated to the deity. Il avait pour épouse la belle Xochiquetzal. The temple of Tezcatlipoca was in the Great Precinct of Tenochtitlan. TEZCATLIPOCA. Gallery : image 3 View the Gallery to see more images & videos … Everyone, including commoners, high priests, and the king, were involved in some aspect of the Toxcatl ceremonies.. Tezcatlipoca played many contradictory roles in Aztec …  To attract her, Tezcatlipoca used his foot as bait, and Cipactli ate it. Tezcatlipoca is the Smoking Mirror. Tezcatlipoca was also worshipped in many other Nahua cities such as Texcoco, Tlaxcala and Chalco. The color black is strongly associated with Tezcatlipoca and he is often portrayed as having horizontal bands across his face especially in black and yellow, but the many different codices vary on which two colors from site to site. Tezcatlipoca’s cult was brought to central Mexico by the Toltecs, Nahua-speaking warriors from the north, about the end of the 10th century ad. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca both collaborated in the different creations and that both were seen as instrumental in the creation of life. According to Fray Diego Durán it was "lofty and magnificently built. Comme beaucoup de dieux aztèques, il était associé à plusieurs aspects de la religion aztèque, le ciel et la terre, les vents et le nord, la royauté, la divination et la guerre. Tezcatlipoca (Tez-ca-tlee-POH-ka), dont le nom signifie «miroir fumant», était le dieu aztèque de la nuit et de la sorcellerie, ainsi que la divinité patronne des rois aztèques et des jeunes guerriers. This talisman was carved out of abalone shell and depicted on the chest of both Huitzilopochtli and Tezcatlipoca in codex illustrations. Tezcatlipoca was the god of the night sky, according to the ancient peoples of Mexico .  For the next year he lived like a god, wearing expensive jewelry and having eight attendants. He is the old arch-rival of Top God Quetzalcoatl and spent most of his time during the Creation of the Universe bashing, crashing and smashing his enemy’s work instead of doing anything constructive.. Tezcatlipoca overthrew Quetzalcoatl who overthrew him in return. On the appointed feast day, he climbed the steps of a small temple while breaking flutes that he had played. Il était le frère de Quetzalcoatl et surtout son principal adversaire. Tezcatlipoca was believed to be the son of the primordial androgynous god Ometeotl. Closely associated with jaguars, smoke, and obsidian mirrors, Tezcatlipoca outwitted Quetzalcoatl and became the ruler of the modern era. Eighty steps led to a landing twelve or fourteen feet wide. Owing to Aztec dualism, Tezcatlipoca was … Tezcatlipoca (often translated as 'Smoking Mirror' from Nahuatl) is a major god in Aztec Mythology, associated with obsidian, the night, jaguars, sorcery and strife, among other things. Together with his eternal opposite Quetzalcoatl, he created the world. In Aztec tradition Tezcatlipoca was considered to be an opposite and rival to Quetzalcoatl. Tezcatlipoca was one of the most important gods in the Aztec pantheon. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Among other things, he was also the god of the night sky and the direction north. 14-15. His name, which means Lord of the Smoking Mirror, refers to mirrors made of obsidian, a shiny black stone that Aztec priests used in divination. Honoring Tezcatlipoca was fundamental to both the priesthood and the nobility. Due to the lack of surviving images, some have chosen to describe Tezcatlipoca as the 'invisible god'. Tezcatlipoca’s nagual, or animal disguise, was the jaguar, the spotted skin of which was compared to the starry sky. In what manner shall I act for thy city?  The two gods then captured her, and distorted her to make the land from her body. There were several priests dedicated to the service of Tezcatlipoca, one of them was probably the one Sahagún calls "huitznahuac teohua omacatl", others were the calmeca teteuctin who were allowed to eat the ritual food offered to Tezcatlipoca, others accompanied the Ixiptlatli impersonator of Tezcatlipoca in the year prior to his execution. , Another story of creation goes that Tezcatlipoca turned himself into the sun, but Quetzalcoatl was furious possibly because they were enemies, he is a night god or due to his missing foot, so he knocked Tezcatlipoca out of the sky with a stone club. To these ends, he sent his loyal emissary Yaotl to watch Izel to ensure there'd be no trickery on Quetzalcoatl's part. Also the Classic Maya god of rulership and thunder known to modern Mayanists as "God K", or the "Manikin Scepter" and to the classic Maya as K'awil was depicted with a smoking obsidian knife in his forehead and one leg replaced with a snake.  Although there are striking similarities between possible earlier imagery of Tezcatlipoca, archaeologists are split in the debate. , When depicted he was usually drawn with a black and a yellow stripe painted across his face. This marriage, occurring after a full year of abstinence, symbolized a period of fertility which followed the drought. Every year at that time the priest selected a young and handsome war prisoner.  Extreme reverence and respect, characterized by ceremonial proceedings in which priests were "to pay homage" to Tezcatlipoca, or where "citizens waited expectantly" for ceremonial proceedings to start under the low hum of "shell trumpets," were commonplace, especially for this deity. Britannica now has a site just for parents! In one version of the Aztec creation account the myth of the Five Suns, the first creation, "The Sun of the Earth" was ruled by Tezcatlipoca but destroyed by Quetzalcoatl when he struck down Tezcatlipoca who then transformed into a jaguar. Le bâton est fait de bambou. Affiliations: Ajak, Tlaloc, Huizilopochtli, Tetzcatlipoca's priests were the … Saturn as the Aztec God Tezcatlipoca The god Tezkatlipoca or the Jaguar Sun was usually depicted as a creature with black skin and yellow (blue) stripes on his face, with a missing left foot (interestingly, limp is a hallmark of the god Saturn in all mythologies!  Immediately after he died a new victim for the next year's ceremony was chosen. Quetzalcoatl became the ruler of the subsequent creation "Sun of Water", and Tezcatlipoca destroyed the third creation "The Su… Tezcatlipoca's main feast was during Toxcatl, the fifth month of the Aztec calendar. Tlaloc, the god of rain, then became the sun. He presided over the telpochcalli (“young men’s houses”), district schools in which the sons of the common people received an elementary education and military training. Although the exact definition of the momoztli is unknown, with definitions varying from "mound", "stone seat" and "temple", there is an overall consensus that it is a general holy place to worship the gods, specifically mentioned as "his [Tezcatlipoca's] viewing place"..  "For one year he lived a life of honor," the handsome young man "worshipped literally as the embodiment of the deity". In addition to his shapeshifting ability, Tezcatlipoca also …  For Aztec nobility, this "patron deity" is fundamental in the social and natural phenomena justified by religion during this time. The god Tezcatlipoca was a major Aztec deity who was worshiped in east-west facing temples in many Mesoamerican city-states under the influence of the Aztecs, particularly Texcoco. After that, they created the people, and people had to offer sacrifices to comfort Cipactli for her sufferings. In one particular hymn, he is mentioned as being both the creator and destroyer of the world, and both as a poet and a scribe. He was the protector of slaves and severely punished masters who ill-treated “Tezcatlipoca’s beloved children.” He rewarded virtue by bestowing riches and fame, and he chastised wrongdoers by sending them sickness (e.g., leprosy) or by reducing them to poverty and slavery.  The young man would approach this sacrifice willingly, as being sacrificed in this manner was a great honor. A creator god, Tezcatlipoca ruled over Ocelotonatiuh (“Jaguar-Sun”), the first of the four worlds that were created and destroyed before the present universe.  Tezcatlipoca priests were offered into his service by their parents as children, often because they were sick. In what manner shall I act for the governed, for the vassals (macehualtin)? As discussed above, Aztec folklore is rife with parallels, much of the time depicted in deities such as Tezcatlipoca. Quetzalcoatl replaced him and started the second age of the world and it became populated again. He is also said to have acted as the First Sun but was knocked from the sky by Quetza… Corrections? Tezcatlipoca was a significant god in Aztec religion. De nombreuses divinités créatrices n'étaient en réalité qu'un aspect de ce dieu tout puissant.
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