Withdrawal of the U.S. Army in 1861 left unguarded a section of the new transcontinental telegraph lines stretching from Fort Kearney, Nebraska, to Salt Lake City. Firearms were manufactured or repaired by the Mormons, scythes wer… A muscular response to polygamy might quell secessionist talk in the south and propitiate Buchanan’s northern allies. The Mormons, fearful that the large U.S. military force had been sent to annihilate them[citation needed], made preparations for defense. In that desolation, Young organized a thriving theocracy. Young had declared Utah Territory unsafe for non-Mormons, or “gentiles,” and most skirted his domain. For nearly a decade, the Mormons in Utah enjoyed relative peace and were free to practice their religion as they saw fit. As Young coolly relinquished his governorship, Cumming begged him to stop the 30,000-person exodus from Salt Lake City. On Sept. 7, 1857, Paiutes and some Mormons dressed as Paiutes first attacked. Buchanan, fearing his over-extended, ill-conceived expedition might lose to the Mormons, agreed. Ethan Allen, American Revolutionary commander. Jesse Gove, a U.S. Army captain, wrote home in frustration, “If the Mormons will only fight, their days are numbered. From then until spring, Smith made the federals’ winter a hard one. HistoryNet.com is brought to you by Historynet LLC, the world's largest publisher of history magazines. Young separately declared the independent kingdom of “Deseret,” occupying the high deserts between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada and stretching southwest into California to San Bernardino, a Mormon colony. The Great Mormon War took place between Mormon settlers in Utah and the United States between May 1857 and April 1858. Utah War (1857-58) References. They seem childish affairs, more suited to the genius of Chinese than of civilized warfare. Angered by the U.S. government’s decision to send troops into the Utah territory, Mormons there were further incensed in 1857 when a band of Listeners, most of whom recalled tar-featherings, mob attacks, rapes, and murders inflicted on them in Missouri and Illinois, recoiled. Every able-bodied man was mustered into the militia. He died in 1901 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. That path passed through Salt Lake City, whose residents viewed the Fancher outfit with suspicion and fear. In June 1858 a disgusted Johnston, as ordered, marched his men through abandoned Salt Lake City past Utah militiamen with torches at the ready in case of a federal misdeed. It sounds outlandish now, but the United States went to war with Mormons in the late 1850s. GCSE History American West (Edexcel) I'm a Mormon, AMA! But by 1857, non-Mormon newspapers from New York to California had begun reporting that the Mormons were seeking the Indians' allegiance in case of a clash with the United States. That same evening in September 1857, Major Lot Smith’s 24 raiders surprised two more federal wagon trains, burning 74 rigs down to the irons, scattering oxen and cattle, and sending the drivers whence they came. We will not be governed one whit by the men that are sent here,” to which the congregation of 2,000 shouted assent. HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. Patrols rode east to the plains to escort immigrants heading for Deseret. Thomas Leiper Kane & the Utah-Mormon War of 1857-58 On July 24th, 1847, a number of wagons, filled with beleagured, worn & weary 'Mormon' pioneers, entered what is now, the Salt Lake Valley, which would later become Utah Territory, under the leadership of an American religious leader & colonizer, Brigham Young. Tensions built up between the rapidly-growing Mormon co… After that evening’s festivities, Young asked Daniel Wells, commander of the Mormon militia and his counselor, to alert the assembled Saints to the threat. 3. “Why, Lot Smith, of course,” Wells said. The autumn before, the upstart. Johnston renamed the ruins “Fort Scott” and ordered his men to make camp. Smith's followers, commonly known as Mormons, began to settle in Jackson County in 1831 to "build up" the city of Zion. All winter, Buchanan reinforced and supplied Camp Scott. Lot Smith and his raiders were crisscrossing the Continental Divide, capturing Army supply trains, stampeding cattle, wrecking river crossings, and torching the countryside. Now 27, he was a proven fighter, uncommonly brave, noble-hearted, and a faithful Latter-day Saint. In a telegram, President Lincoln asked Young to “raise and equip one hundred men for ninety days’ service” to protect the lines in Wyoming. On July 25, 1857, the 10th anniversary celebration of the Mormons’ arrival in Salt Lake Valley was in full swing east of the city at the head of Big Cottonwood Canyon. The Saints, stockpiling provisions against a threatened army siege and fearing the Fancher group might be spies, refused to sell them foodstuffs. At the snick of metal on metal the drivers, who had stacked their own rifles nearby, looked over their shoulders to see a young fellow red of hair, face, and bristling beard. “Heber Kimball is a true prophet,” the commander said, naming a militant Mormon leader. Wanting to distract public attention from slavery, Floyd suggested federal troops accompany Buchanan’s new governor to Utah, a move that coincidentally would weaken federal military strength in the East. Saved by Microsoft Bing. A unanimous vote affirmed his counsel. Republicans, running Californian John C. Frémont and promising to obliterate the “twin relics of barbarism, poly-gamy and slavery,” had nearly beaten Buchanan. In the 1857-1858 Mormon War, President James Buchanan sends U.S. troops to Utah Territory in the so-called "Utah Expedition." News of the stalled expedition galvanized opinion across the country against President Buchanan for sending an ill-advised army into the field. It resulted from misunderstandings that transformed a simple decision to give Utah Territory a new governor into a year-long comedy of errors with a tragic potential. Acknowledging that the Mormons “have been lied about the worst of any people I ever saw,” Van Vliet gave his word that he would do his best to stop the troops bound for Utah. With the April 1861 start of civil war, the Army left for the east, selling locals $4 million in provisions and facilities for a dime on the dollar. A driver started to rise. Kane sailed to Panama, crossed the isthmus, and sailed to California, traveling overland to Fort Bridger and arriving as talk was arising of putting Salt Lake City to the torch. Also called Mormon War. “Let’s move out, boys. We stopped to feed and dine at the site of "General" Well's Camp during the Mormon War of 1857-8, and passed, ten miles below, the fortifications constructed under his orders in that famous campaign. Der Utah-Krieg war eine militärische Auseinandersetzung zwischen den Mormonen in den Rocky Mountains und der Regierung der USA von 1857 bis 1858. Young was not surprised. “It is my intention,” he said, “on arriving in Salt Lake City, to capture Brigham Young and the twelve apostles and execute them in a summary fashion.” Unable to discourage Alexander, Van Vliet raced east, hoping to convince President Buchanan to recall the expedition. Near Fillmore, in central Utah, the Fanchers bartered with a Ute band, reportedly trading them tainted beef that sickened several Indians. At mid-afternoon, four dusty horsemen rode into camp looking for Brother Brigham. Then, in 1857, natives from the Paiute tribe slaughtered a wagon train headed West to California. Am 27. A decade ago, on the day they had arrived in the valley, he had told his followers, “If our enemies will give us ten years unmolested, we will ask no odds of them; we will never be driven again.”. The day is not far distant when you will see us free as the air we breathe. The Utah War, also known as the Utah Expedition, Utah Campaign, Buchanan's Blunder, the Mormon War, or the Mormon Rebellion was an armed confrontation between Mormon settlers in the Utah Territory and the armed forces of the United States government. Smith and the rest of his company stayed. By With white men among the raiding party, they convinced the settlers that Mormons cut a deal with the Paiutes to allow their safe passage, so long as they gave up their weapons. He served in the territorial legislature and oversaw Mormon settlement along the Little Colorado River, where he established dairy, sawmill, and ranching operations. It was too hard to split, too wet to burn, and too heavy to move, so we plowed around it. Outraged Mormon settlers sent a horseman to ask Young’s advice. The Great Mormon War of 1857 and 1858 details the causes and effects of the Great Mormon War and illustrates how the decision to engage in the Great Mormon War reflected t In March 1858, recalling how during the Crimean War in 1854 the Russians had threatened to destroy Sevastopol if Britain and allies attacked the port, Young suggested to the Saints that they torch Salt Lake City if federals entered the valley. Two militiamen, their faces washed clean of paint and plain clothes on their bodies, approached the wagons with a white flag. Diverting the creek, they forced the road against 200-foot canyon walls and loosened limestone boulders, ready to topple onto the foe. War can be as much political construct as military exercise, and in July 1857 U.S. President James Buchanan needed political ammunition. You go back and tell Brigham Young that if he will let me alone I will let him alone.”. Utah, which was settled by the Mormans (Latter-day Saints) in the mid-1840s, was declared a US territory in 1850, and Brigham Young (1801-77), a Mormon leader was appointed governor. Young sent an emissary to Washington, DC, to learn Lincoln’s stance toward the Saints. Federal officials complained of Young's dictatorial ways and the power of the church, while others were shocked at the Mormons' practice of polygamy. The federal government took action against the Mormons after the 1857 Mountain Meadows Massacre. The incident of 1857-58 known as the Utah Expedition, the Utah War or Buchanan’s Blunder was a collision of territorial self-determination against a federal government already faced with insubordination in Kansas and its Southern states. Their leader was Salt Lake City Mayor Abraham Smoot, who, while carrying the June mail east, had seen U.S. Army soldiers mustering at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. During August, federal troops traversed Nebraska along the meandering Platte River, the trail used by pioneers heading for California and Oregon. “You boys go ahead and finish your supper,” the redhead said. Until September 1857, the Mormons had been the victims of violence more than its purveyors. The Utah War 1857-1858. The aggrieved judge, W.W. Drummond, demanded Buchanan replace Young as territorial governor with a non-Mormon. The Mormon War, otherwise known as the Utah War or Mormon Rebellion, describes the violence surrounding an armed confrontation between Mormon settlers in Utah Territory and the U.S. Army, which lasts from March 1857 to July 1858. “Now finish up,” said the interloper. Word of the massacre stirred fury back East. The wind seems to carry echoes of suffering ghost soldiers. Young asked Wells who might most effectively harry the attackers. Heber Kimball, Young’s firebrand counselor, was staring hard at Van Vliet when he said, “But let me tell you, the yoke is off our neck and it is on theirs, and the bow key is in. In June, a presidential peace commission arrived with Buchanan’s offer to pardon the Mormons if they would pledge loyalty to the federal government. him now.”. Cumming convened a grand jury of soldiers and in absentia indicted Young and 60 subordinates for treason. The wagoners, employees of the Russel, Majors, and Waddell Freight Company, were famished after a day of hauling U.S. Army provisions bound for the Utah Territory. Convincing Johnston to stand down, Kane brought Governor Cumming into Utah Territory, escorted by Lot Smith’s raiders. Social and religious conflict between Mormons and non-Mormons continued to influence the life of the city for a century. Other articles where Utah War is discussed: Salt Lake City: History: officials led to the so-called Utah War of 1857–58, when General Albert Sidney Johnston’s troops marched through the city to establish Camp Floyd west of Utah Lake. Quantrill goes to Utah in the spring of 1858 to resupply federal forces, and he supposedly befriends Southern-sympathizing guerillas and acquires a taste for banditry, and a year later he returns to Kansas and falls in with Missouri border ruffians. Mormon leader Brigham Young vowed to burn Salt Lake City rather than surrender to the Army. Civil War on the Western Border: The Missouri-Kansas Conflict,1855-1865, This project is supported by the Institute of Museum and Library Services under the Ashton Albrecht's video focuses on the Mormon Extermination Order in Missouri in 1838. Bands played, children scampered, and women cooked in preparation for that night’s dinner and dance. From May 1857 to July 1858, the Utah Expedition, otherwise known as Utah War, Utah Campaign, Buchanan's Blunder, Mormon War, or Mormon Rebellion, was a result of President Buchanan’s decision to replace Governor Brigham Young with Governor Alfred Cumming. They should gather what they needed from their wagons, he added. He found the Saints peculiar but hardly savages. The confrontation lasted from May 1857–July 1858. “He said the troops wouldn’t get to Salt Lake City, but goods and cattle would come.” Smith’s men laughed. The Mormans, for their … Lot Smith became the first sheriff of Davis County, Utah. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, Confederate General. Once the men turned in their rifles, they were all slaughtered: men, women, and children. The various factors and motivations instigating the massacre remain unclear, but it is notable that roughly as many lives were lost in the Mormon War as in the "Bleeding Kansas" era. Fearing an invasion by the approaching US Army in 1857, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints President Brigham Young evacuated Salt Lake City and ordered the Mormon Militia to prevent the soldiers from entering the valley. Der sogenannte Utah-Krieg 1858 war nichts als die blutlose Entmachtung Youngs als Gouverneur durch Washington. In mid-October, the Army still had more than 100 miles to go to reach Salt Lake City when a blizzard hit, killing cattle and consigning soldiers to shiver at their fires near Fort Bridger, which Smith and his raiders had reduced to little more than scorched walls. “So consider what’s worth packing.” Haphazardly outfitted, the prisoners, herded by a few armed riders, shambled into the dark. “Occasionally we would come to a log which had fallen down. He told Young the approaching army was merely escorting new federal officials. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. 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