APUSH Theme 4: Culture and Society. Timeline. THE DISTRICT MILITIA ORDERED OUT. The values of the Copperheads reflected the Jacksonian democracy of an earlier agrarian society. When the Civil War began, there were fewer than 20,000 soldiers in the national army, and thousands of those troops soon moved south to fight for the Confederacy. Fourth, Weber shows how the attitudes of Union soldiers affected partisan battles back home. [22], The chief historians who favored the Copperheads are Richard O. Curry and Frank L. Klement. Indiana Republicans then used the sensational revelation of an antiwar Copperhead conspiracy by elements of the Sons of Liberty to discredit Democrats in the 1864 House elections. Copperheads Definition Democrats in Congress who opposed Lincoln and the North's attack on the South, claiming war would result in disruption of Northern economy 1491 -1607 2. Weber argues that the Copperheads damaged the Union war effort by opposing conscription (the "draft"), encouraging desertion and forming conspiracies, but other historians say that the draft was already in disrepute and that the Republicans greatly exaggerated the conspiracies for partisan reasons. When the draft began in the city, working class European Americans, largely Irish, responded with violent riots from July 13 to 16, lynching, beating and hacking to death more than 100 black New Yorkers and burning down black-owned businesses and institutions, including an orphanage for 233 black children. [19] The Copperhead coalition included many Irish American Catholics in eastern cities, mill towns and mining camps (especially in the Pennsylvania coal fields). Term: Abolitionism Definition: sought to end slavery. ", Joanna D. Cowden, "The Politics of Dissent: Civil War Democrats in Connecticut. [8], Gilbert R. Tredway, a professor of history, in his 1973 study Democratic Opposition to the Lincoln Administration in Indiana found most Indiana Democrats were loyal to the Union and desired national reunification. Those Democrats accepted the label, reinterpreting the copper “head” as the likeness of Liberty, which they cut from Liberty Head large cent coins and proudly wore as badges. It had its strongest base in the area just north of the Ohio River as well as in some urban ethnic wards. Curry, Richard O. "The Indianapolis Treason Trials, the Elections of 1864 and the Power of the Partisan Press". Copperheads: A group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War: 1012680514: Confiscation Acts: authorized the confiscation of any Confederate property by Union forces. Cowden, Joanna D. "The Politics of Dissent: Civil War Democrats in Connecticut". The contradiction severely weakened the party's chances to defeat Lincoln. [16][17] They were most numerous in border areas, including southern parts of Ohio, Illinois and Indiana (in Missouri, comparable groups were avowed Confederates). Most Copperheads actively participated in politics. What are we to think of a people who resort to such weapons of warfare. They talked of helping Confederate prisoners of war seize their camps and escape. He argued they deliberately served the Confederacy's war aims. 1844 -1877 6. President Lincoln quickly called for northern states to send volunteers, totaling 75,000, to join the Union army. The statements in the outline focus on large-scale historical processes and major developments. [8] Curry sees Copperheads as poor traditionalists battling against the railroads, banks and modernization. The Copperheads' appeal, she argues, waxed and waned with Union failures and successes in the field. As war opponents, Copperheads were suspected of disloyalty and their leaders were sometimes arrested and held for months in military prisons without trial. The Charleston Riot took place in Illinois in March 1864. The Copperheads sometimes talked of violent resistance and in some cases started to organize. Even in the North, the Civil War was so divisive and consumed so many lives and resources that it could hardly have been otherwise. He was a member of the committee that wrote the original Advanced Placement Social Studies Vertical Teams Guide and the Advanced Placement U.S. History Teachers Guide. Copperheads A faction of the democratic party formed after the death of Stephen Douglas. For the South Korean political party, see, A faction of Northern Democrats who opposed the American Civil War and wanted peace with the Confederacy, Joseph George Jr., "'Abraham Africanus I': President Lincoln Through the Eyes of a Copperhead Editor,", Charles W. Calhoun, "The Fire in the Rear,", Michael Kent Curtis, "Lincoln, Vallandigham, and Anti-War Speech in the Civil War. John Mullaly's Metropolitan Record was the official Catholic newspaper in New York City. Formed in Ohio in the 1850s, it became politicized in 1861. However, it chose a pro-war presidential candidate, General George B. McClellan. [15] The Democrats nevertheless nominated him for governor of Ohio in 1863. APUSH Unit 6. [citation needed]. George, Joseph Jr. "'A Catholic Family Newspaper' Views the Lincoln Administration: John Mullaly's Copperhead Weekly". [13] However, Lincoln commuted his sentence while requiring his exile to the Confederacy. -Ohio Copperhead -troublemaking but very good orator -convicted by military tribunal for "treasonable utterances" and sentenced to prison and banished to Confed. Overall, they were a racist group of people, they went as far to proclaim that Abraham Lincoln was secretly a black African man that had a secret agenda to free all Africans. [12] The order was used to arrest Ohio congressman Clement L. Vallandigham when he criticized the order itself. This theme focuses on the roles that ideas, beliefs, social mores, and creative expression have APUSH Unit … Also in 1942, George Fort Milton published Abraham Lincoln and the Fifth Column, which likewise condemned the traitorous Copperheads and praised Lincoln as a model defender of democracy. lines The United States Sanitary Commission was founded in 1861 as the American Civil War began. ", Robert H. Abzug, "The Copperheads: Historical Approaches to Civil War Dissent in the Midwest. Following the American Civil War, if someone called you a carpetbagger or scalawag, it wasn’t meant as a compliment. ; EXCITEMENT AT THE NATIONAL CAPITAL Anticipated Raid of the Secessionists. [8], Jennifer Weber's Copperheads (2006) agrees more with Gray and Milton than with Klement. 44 terms. The Copperheads were a group of political activists from the north that believed in an anti-war style of politics. HomeTeaching MaterialsBonus MaterialsThe “Copperheads” A more significant threat to the Union came from so-called 'Peace Democrats,' known in the North as 'Copperheads' for their treacherous, stealthy attacks. Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the U.S. Confederate States presidential election of 1861, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Copperhead_(politics)&oldid=998066947, Factions in the Democratic Party (United States), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 5. an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ... APUSH Unit 8. [10] The New York Journal of Commerce, originally abolitionist, was sold to owners who became Copperheads, giving them an important voice in the largest city. Wertheim, Lewis J. As the war carried on into 1862, the voices of dissent in these states grew louder. [9], The Copperheads had numerous important newspapers, but the editors never formed an alliance. "How serious a threat did they pose to the Union war effort and hence to the nation's survival?" APUSH Concept Outline Name _____ ... NYC draft riots (1863), Radical Republicans, War Democrats, Peace Democrats, Copperheads, Order of the Sons of Liberty (1864) Example Definition/Description Significance to the Thesis . The military trial of Lambdin P. Milligan and other Sons of Liberty revealed plans to set free the Confederate prisoners held in the state. "Copperheadism and Continuity: the Anatomy of a Stereotype". Term: adams-onis treaty Definition: gained a favorable western boundary of the Louisiana Territory to the Pacific. APUSH Name _____ Review Activity #5 Hour _____ Date _____ College Board Concept Outline Period 5: 1844 to 1877 Directions: The Concept Outline below presents the required concepts and topics that students need to understand for the APUSH test. Antebellum - A term meaning "before war". The soldiers' rejection of Copperheadism and their overwhelming support for Lincoln's reelection in 1864 was decisive in securing the Northern victory and the preservation of the Union. In The Hidden Civil War, Wood Gray decried the "defeatism" of the Copperheads. 1865 -1898 7. One leader, Harrison H. Dodd, advocated violent overthrow of the governments of Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky and Missouri in 1864. He campaigned from Canada, but lost after an intense battle. Third, Weber concluded that the peace movement deliberately weakened the Union military effort by undermining both enlistment and the operation of the draft. This theme focuses on the factors behind the development of systems of economic exchange, particularly the role of technology, economic markets, and government. Its purpose was to promote clean and healthy conditions in the Union Army camps. 60 terms. There was some real fire under that smokescreen of Republican propaganda". He was court-martialed by the Army and sentenced to imprisonment, but Lincoln commuted the sentence to banishment behind Confederate lines. He documented Democratic counties in Indiana having outperformed Republican counties in the recruitment of soldiers. On August 19, 1864, John Mullaly was arrested for inciting resistance to the draft. See more. Lendt, David L. "Iowa and the Copperhead Movement". Wisconsin newspaper editor Marcus M. Pomeroy of the La Crosse Democrat referred to Lincoln as "Fungus from the corrupt womb of bigotry and fanaticism" and a "worse tyrant and more inhuman butcher than has existed since the days of Nero [...] The man who votes for Lincoln now is a traitor and murderer [...] And if he is elected to misgovern for another four years, we trust some bold hand will pierce his heart with dagger point for the public good".[11]. the Democratic Party]. [8], Some Copperheads tried to persuade Union soldiers to desert. However, they never actually made an organized attack. The name “Copperhead” was applied to this group by a disapproving Republican press, which likened the Democrats’ actions to those of the venomous snake. A possible origin of the name came from a New York Times newspaper account in April 1861 that stated that when postal officers in Washington D.C. opened a mail bag from a state now in the Confederacy-, A day or two since, when one of the mail-bags coming from the South by way of Alexandria, was emptied in the court-yard of the Post-office, a box fell out and was broken open, - from which two copperheads, one four and a half and the other three feet long, crawled out. By 1864, he was calling for peace at any price. He was a prominent copperhead who shouted many treasonous terms. His bitter cries against protective tariffs and national banks, his intense race prejudice, his suspicion of the eastern Yankee, his devotion to personal liberty, his defense of the Constitution and State's rights faithfully reflected the views of his constituents. Copperheadism was a highly contentious grass-roots movement. Voorhees idealized a way of life which he thought was being destroyed by the current rulers of his country. Like other Jacksonian agrarians, he resented the political and economic revolution then in progress.

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