Some other known animals were bull, dog, rabbit and bird. The civilization met sufficient skill to reap the advantages of the spacious and fertile Indus River valley. Let’s quickly overview the following pointers: 1. No pottery-kiln was allowed to be built within the four walls of the city. A ship designed on a seal, a terracotta ship and a painting on a jar resembling the story of the ‘cunning fox’ and the ‘thirsty crow’ narrated in Panchatantra. Flanking the streets, lanes and by-lanes were well-planned houses. The people grew wheat, barley, rai, peas, sesamum, mustard, rice (in Lothal), cotton, dates, melon, etc. It gives the impression of a pre-Harappan fortiﬁed settlement. Every merchant or mercantile family probably had a seal bearing an emblem often of a religious character, and a name or brief description, on one side. Town Planning: The excavations of the ruins showed a remarkable skill in town planning. Read more about Indus Valley Civilization, town planning in IVC and other IVC facts for IAS Exam. ENROLL. Kalibangan was an important Harappan city. are listed as possible causes for the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization. Known as Harappan Civilisation, it existed between 3300 BC to 1900 BC. were practiced. Each section was built on a wide platform of unripe bricks. The development patterns, social, cultures and economy of this civilization prove that the Indus Civilization was an urban civilization . Written by: ForumIAS Posted on December 3rd, 2020 Last modified on December 16th, 2020 Comments Views : 3,779. Download Indus Valley Civilization of India Study Material PDF. Complete Indus Valley Civilisation Part - 1 UPSC Notes | EduRev chapter (including extra questions, long questions, short questions, mcq) can be found on EduRev, you can check out UPSC lecture & lessons summary in the same course for UPSC Syllabus. Filter By Papers. The Indus valley civilization gradually developed to a full-fledged civilization which has been established through a continuous sequence of strata named as Pre-Harappan, Early Harappan, Mature Harappan and Late Harappan stages or phases. The Indus Valley Pottery was red or black pottery and the people indulged in dice games, their favorite pastime being gambling. The city was divided into six sections. IAS Mains Online Test: UPSC... 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The Indus civilization apparently evolved from the villages of neighbours or predecessors, using the Mesopotamian model of irrigated agriculture. The customary vessels for drinking were goblets with pointed bases, which were used only once. Indus Valley Civilization was the first major civilization in South Asia, which spread across a vast area of land in present-day India and Pakistan (around 12 lakh sq.km). It was enclosed by a thick (13 m in Harappa) crenellated mud brick wall. The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. Bones of a camel, the skull of a child found suffering from hydrocephalus and a tiled ﬂoor which bears intersecting designs of circles. Lamp posts at intervals indicate the existence of street lightening. The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300-1300 BCE; mature period 2600-1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 A seal with a picture suggesting Pashupati Mahadev and this city is also an extreme example of conservatism, as despite having been ﬂooded almost nine times, they never tried to shift to a safer place. 5 lessons. The IVC declined around 1800 BCE but the actual reasons behind its demise are still debated. Clay pipes led from the bathrooms to sewers located under the streets. The Mesopotamian records from about 2350 B.C. A dockyard has been discovered at Lothal. 4. The Great Bath was probably used for ritual bathing. In Mohenjodaro, a big public bath (Great Bath) measuring 12 m by 7 m and 2.4 m deep has been found. The long term indigenous evolution of this civilization which obviously began on the periphery of the Indus Valley in the hills of eastern Baluchistan and then extended so far into the plains, can be documented by an analysis of four sites which have been excavated in recent years: Mehargarh, Amri, Kalibangan and Lothal which reﬂect the sequence of the four important phases or stages in pre and proto history in the north-west region of the Indian sub-continent. 3. There are seven important cities in the Indus valley civilization: However no temple has been found though idolatry was practiced. The script is not alphabetical but pictographic (about 600 undeciphered pictographs). For example, some evidences have come from both Kalibangan and Lothal hinting at head surgery. It extended from Manda in Jammu in the north to Daimabad in the south and from Alamgirpur in western U.P. The Harappan culture lasted for around 1000 years. Rangpur, Somnath and Balakot functioned as seaports. GS Paper 1 GS Paper 2 GS Paper 3 GS Paper 4. Although the caves found here resemble those at other Harappan sites, other ﬁndings suggest that Alamgirpur developed during the late-Harappan culture. Each platform was separated by a road with width ranging from 12 feet to 20 feet. Harappan seals and other material have been found at Mesopotamia. The time period of mature Indus Valley Civilization is estimated between BC. Evidence of direct trade and interaction with Mesopotamia. selfstudyhistory.com . Amri also gives evidence of pre-Harappan settlement. For UPSC 2021 preparation, follow BYJU’S. Rigvedic Aryans had domesticated the horse whereas there is no evidence of Indus Valley people having been aware of this animal. The red sandstone torso of a man is particularly impressive for its realism. Indus Valley Civilization, a lso known as Harappan Civilization, was the first major civilization in south Asia, which spread across a vast area of land in present day India and Pakistan. Besides the cattle, sheep, pigs, camels, cats and dogs were domesticated. The towns were divided into two parts: Upper part or Citadel and the Lower part. More Links. English Indus Valley Civilization Ancient History : Basics of Indus Valley Civilization. The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity; Two cities, in particular, have been excavated at the sites of Mohenjo-Daro on the lower Indus, and at Harappa, further upstream. In around 1900 BC it began to decline and around 1400 BC disappeared. The windows faced the streets and the houses had tiled bathrooms. Mohenjodaro and Harappawere unearthed. According to radio-carbon dating, it spread from the year, Copper, bronze, silver and gold were known, Major sites in Pakistan are Harappa (on river Ravi in west Punjab), Mohenjodaro (on Indus), Chanhu-Daro (Sindh), etc. The Indus civilization stands tall amongst other civilizations of the ancient world such as Mesopotamian, Egyptian and Babylonian. A college, a multi-pillared assembly hall, the. While the civilisation was in its peak, several cultures, namely, Mesolithic and Neolithic cultures prevailed in other parts of India. The Indus Valley people were primarily urban people. civilization (because the 1st excavated city was Harappa). Good Morning Friends, We are Posting Today’s Prelims Marathon . Burnt bricks of good quality were used for building material except in Rangpur and Kalibangan. Bisht were involved in it. The people of this culture were not acquainted with iron at all. 10 lessons. Banerjee discovered Mohenjodaro or ‘Mound of the Dead’ (on Indus) in 1922. The Citadel was an oblong artiﬁcial platform some 30-50 feet high and about some 400-200 yards in area. Other important material remains include ceramics, steatite seal and a few terracotta sealing with typical Indus script, ear rings shaped like leaves of a peepal tree and terracotta bangles. Sutkagendor and Sutkakoh functioned as outlets. Houses were made of stone. For their children, the Harappans made cattle-toys with moveable heads, model monkeys which could slide down a string, little toy carts and whistles shaped like birds all of terracotta. 5 lessons. The main streets and roads were set in a line, sometimes running straight for a mile, and were varying in width from 4 meters to 10 meters. Example- In Harappa and Mohenjodaro. The Indus Valley civilization was an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River in what is now Pakistan and north-western India. Download Indus Valley Civilization notes PDF. One theory claims that the Indo-European tribe i.e. The Indus Valley civilization was an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River in what is now Pakistan and north-western India. 2020 Best Mock Test ! Elsewhere in the contemporary world mud bricks were used. to Sutkagendor in Baluchistan in the west. The invasion of the Aryans, recurrent ﬂoods (7 ﬂoods), social breakup of Harappans, Earthquakes, successive alteration in the course of the river Indus and the subsequent drying up of the areas in and around the major cities, etc. A ploughed ﬁeld was the most important discovery of the early excavations. Produced sufﬁcient to feed them. Represented on the seal is a ﬁgure with three horned heads in a yogic posture, surrounded by an elephant, a tiger, a rhinoceros and below his throne is a buffalo. The Potter’s wheel was in use. The excavations at Chanhu-daro have revealed three different cultural layers from lowest to the top being Indus culture, and the pre-Harappan Jhukar culture and the Jhangar culture, The site is especially important for providing evidences about different Harappan factories and these factories produced seals, toys and bone implements. The main streets and roads were set in a line, sometimes running straight for a mile, and were varying in width from 4 … ENROLL. They were fully conscious of the various fashions of hair-dressing and wore beards of different styles. 5. Horses weren’t in regular use but elephant was. Ropar is a Harappan site from where remains of pre-Harappan and Harappan cultures have been found, Buildings at Ropar were made mainly of stone and soil. Ornaments were worn by both men and women, rich or poor. It is situated in Hissar district of Haryana, Banawali has provided two phases of culture during its excavations: the pre-Harappan (Phase I) and the Harappan (Phase II). Indus Valley Civilization. A human head with long oval eyes, thick lower lips, receding forehead and straight pointed nose. The Harappa is situated in Montogomery district of Punjab (Pakistan). 69. 3. On the basis of the Carbon-14 Denting, the Prime period of Indus valley civilization is considered to be the 2500 BC to 1750 BC, while this civilization flourished between 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE. Harappan civilization [since Harappa was the first place to be discovered] or Indus valley civilization [it is located on the banks of Indus River] is 5000 year old civilization. Mediterranean, Proto-Australoid, Mongoloids and Alpines formed the bulk of the population, though the ﬁrst two were more numerous. A piece of woven cotton alongwith spindle whorls and needles. One male ﬁgure or a statue shows that generally two garments were worn and the female dress was more or less like that of a male. It is also known as the ‘Mound of the dead’; it lies in Larkana district of Sind (Pakistan). R.B. The Indus Valley people had achieved a great skill in drawing the ﬁgures of men, animals and various other objects of nature and were fully conversant with the art of craving with ﬁgures on ivory, soap- stone, leather, metal and wood proving their artistic acumen. Introduction . Indus Valley Civilization: characteristics and significance, art and architecture- Part I. Naveen Jain. Indus Valley Civilization (Indian History) 66. High quality barley has been found in excavations. Almost 36% of the total seals excavated in the Indus Civilization are excavated from Harappa alone. It is interchangeably also referred to as the Harappan civilization, due to its association with Harappa which was the first city to be discovered in Punjab, Pakistan. There was no exchange of foodgrains/export or import. Though Phase II belonged to the Harappan period, chess board or grid pattern of town planning was not always followed as in other Harappan sites, the roads were not always straight nor did they cut at right angles and it is also lacked another important feature of the Harappan civilization – a systematic drainage system. A grave has been found in association with a big rock (megalithic burial), a rare ﬁnding of the Harappan culture. Among other names for this civilization is the Harappan civilization in reference to the ﬁrst excavated city of Harappa. Current Events, Debates, MCQs. The Harappans were expert bead makers. But the upper classes preferred a God– nude with two horns, much similar to Pashupati Shiva. The inland transport was carried out by bullock carts. It is Well-knit external and internal trade. Other discoveries include Bronze image of an ‘ekka’ (vehicle) and a seal with the representation of the sign of ‘swastika’ on it. Jan 07,2021 - Test: Indus Valley Civilization (UPSC Level) | 20 Questions MCQ Test has questions of UPSC preparation. An alternative term for the culture is Saraswati- Sindhu civilization based on the fact that most of the Indus Valley sites have been found along the Ghaggar-Hakra River. It started to wane about 1900 BC and vanished around 1400 BC. Aryans invaded and conquered the IVC. Flint tool-work, shell-work, bangle-making (famous in Kalibangan), etc. A large granary (the largest building of Mohenjodaro) which suggests extreme centralization as the ruling authorities must have ﬁrst brought the agricultural produce here and then redistributed it. The Harappan culture belongs to the Bronze Age and bronze was made by mixing tin and copper. Anuj Kumar. This is also known as Harappan Civilization after the first city to be excavated, which is Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan). The dead were buried in the southern portion of the fortiﬁed area, called cemetery R-37. Roads were well cut dividing the town into large rectangular or square blocks. Evidence of direct trade contact with Mesopotamia and a. Go to History Notes & Study Materials Page. Houses were often of two or more storey, of varying sizes but were quite monotonous – a square courtyard around which were a number of rooms. There is also an evidence of burying a dog below the human burial (Though the practice was prevalent in Burzahom in Kashmir, it was late in the Harappan context. However it lacks the fortiﬁcation plan of the pre-Harappan phase. It has been identiﬁed with Hari-Yupiya which is mentioned in the Rigveda. Dead bodies were placed in the north-south orientation. Weights and measures of accuracy existed in Harappan culture (found at Lothal). Evidence of double burial (burying a male and a female in a single grave) found in three graves whereas in Kalibangan one such grave has been found and evidence of games similar to modern day chess and An instrument for measuring 180, 90, 45 degree angles (the instrument points to modern day compass). 80% of the settlements were on the banks of the now lost Saraswati River. Rather, they came back to the original site whenever the water table receded. It’s not easy to connect the archaeological finds with their respective Harappan cities. 5. Sir John Marshal played a crucial role in both these. Daily Current Events. The outside walls had no windows. As per researchers, the downfall of this great civilization started around 1900 BC. In 1920s, the Archaeological Department of India carried out excavations in the Indus valley wherein the ruins of the two old cities, viz. The weights were made of limestone, steatite, etc. This test is Rated positive by 93% students preparing for UPSC.This MCQ test is related to UPSC syllabus, prepared by UPSC teachers. The word Kalibangan means ‘black bangles’. 16 was the unit of measurement (16, 64, 160, and 320). Sutkagendor situated in Sindh (Pakistan) was an important coastal town of the Indus civilization. Single room barracks just below the walls of the citadels for the labourers and factory workers. Women wore heavy bangles in profusion, large necklaces, ear-rings, bracelets, ﬁgure-rings, girdles, nose-studs and anklets. Topic – Indus Valley Civilization – 100 Must-Know Facts– UPSC GS-I Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) is one of the four great civilizations of the world. Most of these roads and streets were paved with fire brunt bricks. It appears from excavations that the people of this culture were well-versed with surgery. At Kalibangan and Lothal ﬁre altars have been found. Indus valley civilization is also known as Saraswati-Sindu civilization or Harrapan. There is no clear idea of the political organization of the Indus valley people. 4.Consider the following statements regarding the Indus Valley Civilization: I.It was at Harappa that the relics of this civilization were first noticed, it is also known as the Harappan civilization. Prev Next. Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a bronze-age civilization. We get some idea of the size of population that lived in any of the Harappan cities from the studies conducted. EduRev is like a wikipedia just for education and the Indus Valley Civilisation Part - 1 UPSC Notes | EduRev images and diagram are … and were generally cubical in shape. (a) Houses of Indus Valley Civilization were one or two stories high, made of baked (Pucca) bricks, with flat roofs. The Indus Valley Civilization was set up in 3300 BC. Each home had its own private drinking well and its own private bathroom. Around 3300 BC has established the civilization of the Indus Valley. The Indus people sowed seeds in the ﬂood plains in November, when the ﬂood water receded, and reaped their harvests of wheat and barley in April, before the advent of the next ﬂood which indicated agriculture and knowledge of calendar reading. Harappan civilization forms part of the proto history of India i.e. However the most impressive of the ﬁgurines is the bronze image of a dancing girl (identiﬁed as a devdassi) found at Mohenjodaro. Myupsc.com is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). This style is called ‘Boustrophedon’. For making bronze, copper was obtained from Khetri in Rajasthan and from Baluchistan and tin from Afghanistan. rishi upsc — October 2, 2019 add comment. Most Important UPSC IAS topics for UPSC Exam... UPSC Mains Test Series ! Working ﬂoors, consisting of rows of circular brick platforms lay to the south of granaries and were meant for threshing grain and evidence of cofﬁn burial and cemetery ‘H’ culture. Excavations at the site suggest that the city was destructed by force. Near his feet are two deer. Raw materials for these came from different sources: gold from north Karnataka, silver and Lapis Lazuli from Afghanistan and Iran, copper from Khetri and Baluchistan, etc. Praveen Kumar Pandey. In later cultures, various elements of the IVC are found which suggests that civilization did not disappear suddenly due to an invasion. Lamp posts at intervals indicate the existence of street lighting. 08 Jul 2019; 0 min read; Tags: GS Paper - 1; Ancient Indian History ; Send To My Progress Send To My Bookmarks Print PDF. Indus Valley Civilization Ancient India History Notes for APSC, UPSC & other Exams. IVC was spread across the western part of South Asian that now lies in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Through excavations, the evidence of bead maker’s shops has come to light; it was the only Harappan city without a citadel. The Indus valley people were very fond of ornaments (of gold, silver, ivory, copper, bronze and precious stones) and dressing up. The Indus people were the ﬁrst to produce cotton in the world. It flourished along the flood plains of Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra. Town Planning: The excavations of the ruins showed a remarkable skill in town planning. R.D. 2700- BC.1900 ie. The primary purpose of the seal was probably to mark the ownership of property, but they may have also served as amulets. The site is remarkable for providing the impression of cloth on a trough. This was extended from modern-day northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and India. 1 rating. Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) is the beginning of the history of India. Some remarkable ﬁndings at Chanhu-daro include bronze ﬁgures of bullock cart and ekkas, a small pot suggesting an inkwell, footprints of an elephant and a dog chasing a cat. The town planning in Lothal was different from that of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. Later excavations at Kalibangan made the following speciﬁc discoveries: The evidences of two types of burials are also found: Kot-Diji is known more as a pre-Harappan site. Over 1000 Indus Valley Civilization sites have been discovered. The script has not been deciphered so far, but overlaps of letters show that it was written from right to left in the ﬁrst line and left to right in the second line. Important findings at Amri include the actual remains of rhinoceros, traces of Jhangar culture in late or declining Harappan phase and ﬁr altars. The methodology of system of governance as well as the institutions is something that is least known to the present […] Domestication of animals was done on a large scale. 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